The participants answered questions about how often they were treated with less courtesy; given poorer service; or treated as if they were stupid, skrikwekkend, dishonest or inferior. Then they shared whether they attributed the main reason for their experiences to their ancestry, nasionale oorsprong, race or ethnicity; seks; ouderdom; height; weight or other physical aspect.
Oor 93% of participants said they had experienced discrimination a varying number of times throughout the 10-year study period, the authors found — this included 91% aan 94% of each category of adults (Wit, Swart, Hispanic or Latinx, Asian, native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaska Native and other Indigenous peoples). Ageism was the highest reported reason for discrimination, followed by physical appearance, sexism and racism.
Before this study, researchers had still been looking into the impact of discrimination over time and at specific developmental periods, such as when someone transitions into adulthood between ages 18 en 28, het die skrywers geskryf. The study is the first to focus on the transition to adulthood and follow the same group of adults over time, according to the authors.
“Met 75% of all lifetime mental health disorders presenting by age
24, the transition to adulthood is a crucial time to prevent mental and behavioral health problems
,” said Yvonne Lei
, the study’s corresponding author and a medical student at the University of California
, Die Engele’ David Geffen School of Medicine
, in n verklaring
The findings mirror the clinical experiences of psychologist John Duffy and his colleagues, said Duffy, wat nie by die studie betrokke was nie.
“The more a young person is discriminated against
, the more likely they will experience emotional difficulties including depression
, angs, self-esteem issues and even suicidal ideation
,” said Duffy
, who specializes in work with teens
, ouers, paartjies en gesinne, and wrote the book
“Ouerskap van die nuwe tiener in die tyd van angs
.” “I also find that
, as the study concludes
, substance use tends to increase with discrimination experienced.
How discrimination could impact one’s health
A person’s stress response to mistreatment could be the way discrimination affects health, the researchers suggested.
Black women who were participants of a separate 2020 studeer and often experienced racism including racial slurs
, poor store service or stereotyping had
2.75 times the risk of poor subjective cognitive functioning than women who had faced less racism
. Cognitive function is a person’s mental capacity for learning
, remembering and paying attention
“The associations we found are likely also intertwined with mental health care service disparities
— including inequities in care access
, provider biases and structural and institutional discrimination in health care
— leading to inequities in diagnoses
, treatment and outcomes
,” said the study’s senior author Dr
. Adam Schickedanz
, an assistant professor of pediatrics at UCLA’s Geffen School of Medicine
, in n verklaring
Many people who face discrimination already feel some insecurity about the issue, whether it’s gender, ras, age or appearance, Duffy gesê. “This compounds the damage to the psyche, as the discrimination can serve to confirm a bias the victim already holds about his or her worth.”
Daarbenewens, sex or gender, ras, age and appearance all have one thing in common: They’re outside the mistreated person’s control, so they can’t change them nor hide from them, óf, Duffy gesê.
And the type of ageism young adults experience depends on their age. Ageism toward younger people might look like disrespecting their opinions due to their lack of experience, Duffy said in an email. “For those in the 18-21 range or so, they feel as if they have learned a lot, and have access to far more data and information than previous generations did at that age. They also feel they are more discerning, so having their ideas and thoughts disrespected or dismissed is particularly difficult for them.”
Aan die ander kant, adults between ages 25 en 28 might be discriminated against in a way that makes them feel too old to be attractive or to be successful if they haven’t accomplished career goals, hy het bygevoeg. “Discrimination in this direction diminishes their sense of hope for the future.”
Appearance discrimination can lower people’s self-esteem, het Ann Kearney-Cooke gesê, a psychologist who specializes in body image and eating disorders and wasn’t involved in the study.
If you’re struggling with such mistreatment, Kearney-Cooke recommended focusing on your signature strengths and choices that make you feel good about yourself.
“Don’t let people make you feel uncomfortable or like you’re not good enough,” sy het gese. “I encourage people to be with people who aren’t like that. Sometimes we can’t have control with our family or job, but really think about who you surround yourself with.”