Horse tranquilizer is hitting the US as a dangerous street drug

A new and dangerous street drug is emerging in the US.

It’s called xylazine, though it’s better known by its street name, “tranq”. It’s a non-opioid sedative used in veterinary medicine, typically with horses.
And in Philadelphia, where drug overdoses have spiked to historic highs, it was present in nearly one-third of all fatal opioid overdose cases in 2019.
A new study in the journal Injury Prevention, published Wednesday, says the rise of xylazine in Philadelphia suggests the opioid epidemic in the US is continues to evolve.

    Xylazine is not for humans

    Different from ketamine, an animal tranquilizer also used효과적으로in human medicine, xylazine has not been approved by the FDA for human use.
    In humans, the study said, xylazine may depress the central nervous and respiratory systems, and cause low blood pressure and a slow heart rate.
    When it’s combined with opioids to createtranq dope,” it may be deadly.

    ‘Tranquse is spiking in Philadelphia

    Philadelphia has been in the throes of a worsening opioid crisis in recent years, slightly relieved by the life-saving overdose reversal drug, naloxone.
    But naxolone is ineffective for xylazine poisoning, because xylazine is not an opioid.
    중에서 2010-2015, xylazine was only detected in 2% of heroin and/or fentanyl overdose deaths in Philadelphia.
    에 2019, that proportion jumped to 31%.
    The reasons for its spike over the past decade aren’t yet clear, Jewell Johnson, MPH, substance abuse epidemiologist at the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and lead author on the study, CNN에 말했다.
    그러나, 그녀가 말했다, one reason xylazine use is surging so quickly may be because of its powerful sedative effects.
    We have heard in focus groups with people who use drugs in Philadelphia that ‘tranq dope makes you feel like you’re doing dope [heroin] in the old days [before it was replaced by fentanyl],'” 그녀가 말했다.
    According to the study, fentanyl has largely eclipsed heroin’s place in Philadelphia’s illicit drug market.
    The study said a combination approach for overdoses involving both xylazine and opioids — 또는 “tranq dope” — may include naloxone with other measures, like intubation and ventilation.

    It’s involved in overdoses in other states

    Philadelphia isn’t the only US city to find a rise of xylazine in toxicology reports.
    Johnson said jurisdictions in Ohio and Maryland have also detected xylazine in opioid overdose deaths in recent years.
    In Frederick County, 메릴랜드, xylazine remained largely a mystery until 십월 2020.
    We started seeing clients that had necrotic tissue damage and severe abscessesrelated to both injection use and snorting,” said Andrea Walker, director of Behavioral Health Services for the Frederick County Health Department in Maryland, CNN에 말했다.
    We started hearing reports from the people who were using these substancesabout really distressing side effects, such as periods of extended blackout,” 그녀가 말했다. “They were losing hours of time.
    After obtaining and testing substance samples, Walker said xylazine was being used as a cutting agent for fentanyl, heroin and cocaine.
    She confirmed that xylazine is still present in Frederick County, and was detected in a sample as recently as Dec. 29.

    What we know and where it’s headed

    While xylazine is newly emerging in the continental US, it has been a drug of abuse in Puerto Rico since the early 2000s, the study said.
    different study published in 2012 found that the prevalence of xylazine use among drug users sampled in the San Juan metropolitan area was 80.7%.
    Xylazine’s trajectory in Philadelphia and elsewhere remains to be seen.
    지금, the study calls on jurisdictions who don’t test for xylazine in toxicology reports to include it. Researchers are also pushing for more education about the drug.
      Public efforts should be focused on informing people who use drugs that their drug supply may have been adulterated with xylazine, and warn them about the adverse effects,” 존슨은 말했다.
      More research is needed, 그녀가 말했다, to understand the health consequences of xylazine use in combination with other drugs.

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