How Kabul became an evacuation bottleneck and a prime terror target: 마지막 96

America’s war in Afghanistan ended in calamity. 주위에 120,000 people were evacuated from Kabul in just a matter of days, but the herculean, if chaotic effort made the airport a prime target for a terrorist attack that killed nearly 200, 포함 13 우리. 서비스 회원.

But exactly how did 아프가니스탄, a nation with a military the U.S. trained for 20 연령, so quickly fall to the Taliban and instability? How did Kabul become a frenzied site where tens of thousands of people were simultaneously trying to flee the country through the same escape route?

It was just a compilation of events that led to this precipitous fall,” a former senior Defense Department official, Mick Mulroy, 폭스 뉴스에 말했다.

바이든 대통령 repeatedly reiterated his commitment to withdraw all U.S. troops from Afghanistan by Aug. 31, even as the Taliban swept through the country at a speed that, according to a spokesperson, surprised even the Taliban.

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Biden also repeatedly blamed the Afghan army for giving up rather than fighting the Taliban once the 우리. 군대 began to depart.

But the reality is more nuanced.

Afghanistan’s fall and a bottleneck at the Kabul airport were results of a combination of complementary factors, laid out by experts who spoke with Fox News: the peace deal’s effects on the Afghan government and military’s morale and confidence; the U.S.-trained Afghan army’s reliance on air support; the Taliban’s highly effective military and diplomatic strategies; and the U.S.’ failure to hold a crucial air base and keep the Taliban out of Kabul until it completed its evacuation.

A peace agreement violated

그만큼 지우다 administration’s February 2020 peace deal crushed the Afghan government and military’s confidence, according to the Afghanistan experts. When Biden reaffirmed his commitment to the deal in April 2021, morale decayed further and simultaneously emboldened the Taliban just as the fighting season began.

I think it was a mistake to negotiate with the Taliban,” Mulroy, the Trump-era deputy assistant secretary of defense for the Middle East, 폭스 뉴스에 말했다. “It was essentially a negotiation for our surrender.

It was clear that the way the U.S. treated the negotiations to depart essentially excluded [the Afghan government] as even relevant in it,” Mulroy continued.

The peace deal required the Taliban and the Afghan government to enter peace talks, which ultimately fell apart.

The current administration had no obligation to carry through on that agreement,” said Mulroy, an ABC News national security analyst. “It had been violated, and they chose not to carry through on a lot of agreements of the previous administration.

“그래서, the idea that their hands were tied, I think is just not true.

상관없이, Biden announced that he would still withdraw U.S. forces from Afghanistan.

When President Biden announced the complete troop withdrawal on April 14, it really registers among Afghans as a vote of no confidence in the Afghan government, as well as the Afghan army,” Elliot Ackerman, an author and a former 선박CIA intelligence officer, 폭스 뉴스에 말했다.

What you begin to see is a crisis of confidence and a complete collapse of those institutions, particularly as this announcement is made in the lead-up to the fighting season,” Ackerman continued. “When that fighting season begins, we see a very intense Taliban offensive that leads to one city in one key bit of strategic terrain falling after another, culminating in the fall of Kabul in August.

Taliban fighters pose for photograph in Kabul on Aug. 18, 2021. (AP Photo/Rahmat Gul)
Taliban fighters pose for photograph in Kabul on Aug. 18, 2021. (AP Photo/Rahmat Gul)

Taliban fighters pose for photograph in Kabul on Aug. 18, 2021. (AP Photo/Rahmat Gul) (AP Photo/Rahmat Gul)

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Americans largely supported withdrawing from Afghanistan, polls conducted during the Trump administration and into Biden’s presidency found, though a recent survey showed they disfavored how Biden handled the pullout.

Ackerman pointed to a 2018 Rasmussen poll that found 42% either believed the U.S. was no longer at war in Afghanistan or didn’t know. Mulroy noted that surveys have shown decreasing support when respondents are asked if they would favor withdrawal if it meant the return of the Taliban or 알 카에다.

This idea of an ‘endless war’ is more of a political slogan,” Mulroy told Fox News.

Ackerman said: “Somewhere in our American narrative, we seem to have got in our head that wars end when all the troops come home, that it’s a prerequisite for a war ending. If you look historically, that has never been the case.

Ackerman and Mulroy both pointed to Germany, South Korea and Japan – all nations where U.S. forces fought during war and remained afterward.

“사실로, the troops only all come home when we lose wars,” Ackerman said. “We leave troops behind to secure peace.

And that is what led to this calamitous situation in Afghanistan,” 그는 계속했다.

Mulroy said U.S. casualties could remain low and stability could be maintained if the military kept 7,500 troops in Afghanistan.

The Afghans were doing 98% of the fighting by the time we entered this so-called peace agreement,” Mulroy, a former Marine and retired CIA paramilitary operations officer, 폭스 뉴스에 말했다.

The way we set up their military had them essentially dependent on our support,” 그는 계속했다, specifically highlighting U.S. air operations.

It was an Afghan army facing declines in both morale and air support that faced the Taliban’s emboldened aggression.

A strategic, swift sweep

The Taliban rapidly seized rural territory – sometimes by force, sometimes through negotiated surrenders – giving them control over the highways and the ability to prevent supplies from reaching more fortified outposts and urban centers.

It proved highly effective.

The Taliban controlled 77 of Afghanistan’s 421 districts when Biden announced his commitment to withdraw the troops by Sept. 11 (though he’d later move that to Aug. 31), 에 따르면 Long War Journal.

By early August, that nearly tripled to 223 districts. They were contesting another 116.

We started seeing the Taliban essentially envelope provincial capitals without going in,” Mulroy told Fox News. “And what we saw them doing was essentially letting everybody know that as soon as this withdrawal happened that they would be taking over these towns.

And there wouldn’t be air support, our air support, to stop them.

While it’s true, as Biden claimed, that some outposts surrendered without a fight, many others fought until their defeat.

In many places, the Taliban outnumbered Afghan forces, according to Mulroy. 이상 1,400 Afghan security forces were killed from May through July, The New York Times reports.

For those that have fought alongside them, we know that when put to the task, we’ve seen them fight,” Mulroy told Fox News. “We’ve seen them not only give up their lives fighting the Taliban, but save ours.

But another aspect … is every time we try to create a military in a mirror image force of our own, it does not do well when we withdraw our support,” 그는 덧붙였다.

We’ve designed that force to fight with a significant air component,” Mulroy said. Many Afghan units hadto totally change the way they fought, and they were incapable of doing it.

An Afghan National Army soldier alert during an exercise near a military base. (AP 사진)
An Afghan National Army soldier alert during an exercise near a military base. (AP 사진)

An Afghan National Army soldier alert during an exercise near a military base. (AP 사진)

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