“Plenty of people get tattoos, 보석류, insignia patches,” Pitcavage said. “It’s become one of the most common modern White supremacy symbols.”
에 2015, Roof took 88 bullets with him into the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church where he killed nine people. He has since been convicted of federal murder and hate crimes charges and was sentenced to death in 2017. He has appealed his conviction.
At his 2016 시도, Assistant US Attorney Jay Richardson said Roof had designed his own logo that included his initials
, a swastika and the number
“He created the symbol to reflect who he was, what he thought and what he had done,” Richardson said at the time.
A connection to the number
“88” had previously surfaced in
2008, when two men were accused of plotting to assassinate President Barack Obama. It was alleged then that they were planning to kill
88 흑인, including schoolchildren
, and wanted to behead
And decades earlier
, 데이비드 레인, a member of a White supremacist group known as “The Order” who was convicted of the
1984 murder of Jewish radio host Alan Berg at his home in Denver
, wrote a list of statements titled
” on what he called
,” 에 따르면 Southern Poverty Law Center.
There have been some attempts in the past to reclaim hate symbols
, 포함 Pepe, a cartoon frog
그건 labeled a hate symbol by the ADL
에 2016. But Pitcavage said people don’t have a considerable attachment to numbers like they might have toward symbols
The settlement of $ 88 백만 — $ 25 million split among survivors and $ 63 million split among the families for those killed — was not intentionally chosen, Sellers told CNN. But its symbolic importance quickly became evident for the legal team representing the families and survivors.
“We’re gonna have to own this. It’s going to be intentional and purposeful that we’re going to have to use their racism and bigotry and their symbolism,” Sellers recalled telling another attorney in the case when they learned about the settlement amount.
The victims in the massacre, 판매자가 말했다, were killed because they were Black and now, the settlement can help a community deeply affected by violent racism take ownership of their own future and build wealth.