“If we start connecting the dots,” 李说, “the issue becomes excruciatingly clear that historical institutional racism has banished people of color from the great outdoors.”
How the outdoors became racialized
Back when the Pilgrims first arrived in North America, the reverence seen for the outdoors today did not exist, 李告诉美国有线电视新闻网. The wilderness was viewed as a dangerous place, something that needed to be tamed and cultivated to survive, 他说.
But that changed in the 1800s, when urban White elites began to romanticize nature, viewing it as a wholesome environment (think of Walt Whitman and Henry David Thoreau, who were both writers at the time).
With that romanticization, came racialization, according to Lee.
“(Some White elites saw) the urban environment as dirty, unhealthy, filled with lots of immigrants and people of color, whereas green spaces were clean, quiet and for White people,” 李说.
And this was a widespread belief
. The environmental movement held close ties to eugenicism
, and the first head of the US Forest Service
, Gifford Pinchot
, was active in the eugenics movement
. Madison Grant
, another famed conservationist who was instrumental in creating Denali
, 奥林匹克, Everglades
, and Glacier national parks
, claimed the Nordics were the superior race and saw parks as a way to help Nordic descendants thrive
, according to Lee’s research
“They had no interest in serving people of color,” 李说. “Some of them even viewed parks and outdoor recreation as a tool for maintaining White supremacy, and believed White Americans could cultivate tough and boisterous characteristics in the outdoor environment.”
Even former President Theodore Roosevelt
, who oversaw the establishment of many national parks
, did so over fears that the White race would become inferior if they became too soft
, according to Lee’s research
When the National Park Service was founded in 1916, Jim Crow laws had already been implemented in the South, and other racist laws and customs kept Black Americans out of these parks. Even when the NPS officially desegregated its parks in 1945, local ordinances still sometimes barred Black people entry, 李说.
代替, Black people were only permitted to use the
” of White parks or parks built only for Black people
, but these were few and far between and
, 经常, not exactly in good condition
, said Lee
. Lewis Mountain Negro Area
, in Shenandoah National Park
, was one of the first of such
,” opening in 1935.
在 1952, while there were 180 state parks in nine southern states available to White people, 只有 12 for Black people, according to Lee’s research.
Latinos were also banned from using these parks in places like Texas, 李说 — further preserving these outdoor spaces as privileges only afforded to those of European descent.
“Outdoor spaces weren’t just coded as White, they were White,” 李说. “They were defined and managed as White spaces.”
Racism’s impact on today’s outdoors
Trends nowadays — of lower participation by people of color in outdoor recreation — reflect much of this prior racist history.
Nicole Boyd and Narshara Cade co-founded Black Girls Hike RVA
在 2020, as a space for women of color to enjoy and experience the outdoors
. Twice a month
, 群组 — typically about
25 人 — go on hikes and other outdoor adventures around Virginia
Though many women have hiked with Boyd and Cade over the last year, they say one woman stuck out 给他们. She was an older hiker, in her late 60s, and she told them a story about trying to enter a state park as a young girl and not being allowed, because it was segregated.
“Think about every generation not being able to go to the park, not being able to experience those things, that affects an entire generation of people,” 博伊德说. “So it was great to hear, but it was hard to hear, too.”
但, Boyd continued, now the woman could experience the outdoors, with a group full of other Black women — and that was special.
Some researchers, 李说, have argued that the reasons for the racial gap in the outdoors are because of cultural differences and lack of resources — outdoor recreation, 毕竟, can cost money, and parks can be far away from cities where many people of color are concentrated.
但, Lee said those reasons don’t paint the whole picture.
“An important question we need to ask in this argument is why are Black and Hispanic people experiencing higher poverty rates, if money is such an important aspect?” 李说. “The answer is racism.”
The same can be said about why so many people of color are in cities, or why some may not grow up with an emphasis on outdoor recreation. It all comes back to the legacy of institutional racism, 李说.
Outdoor spaces aren’t always safe for people of color either
, and the fear of encountering a racist crime can significantly deter some from participating in outdoor activities
, 他指出. 的 事件
在 2018 when a White woman called the police on a group of Black people having a cookout in a public park
, is one example
, 如 is the White woman who called
911 在 Black birdwatcher in Central Park in New York last year
Other encounters can be violent
, even deadly
. 今年早些时候, 二 elderly Korean Americans were punched in the face while on a walk in a park in California
. 而去年, Ahmaud Arbery was shot and killed while on a run near Brunswick
Movements to diversify the outdoors
即使是这样, conversations about who gets to enjoy and have access to the outdoors remain top of mind as a number of people call
对于 dismantling settler colonialist and racial capitalist ties outdoor recreation and the industries associated with it have maintained by erasing contributions of Indigenous people and people of color
And things are slowly changing.
Through groups like Black Girls Hike RVA, Outdoor Afro, or Indigenous Women Hike, Lee said he sees the emergence of a social movement to change the idea that outdoor recreation is only for White people.
Eddie Taylor is a climber with Full Circle Everest Expedition, who will become the very first all-Black team to attempt to summit Mount Everest in 2022. Representation is something the team talks about frequently, Taylor told CNN, as most people both in the US and in Nepal don’t necessarily associate Black people with climbing Everest.
“(Our expedition) not only changes the US narrative of climbing, but it also kind of changes what’s going on over there,” 他说, speaking of Nepal. “This is an expedition made up of people who aren’t typically on that mountain or in that space.”
Taylor hopes the momentum of 2020’s protests keeps going, and pushes groups to make more efforts to diversify outdoor recreation.
But Lee noted that a lot of these initiatives come from the bottom-up. He told CNN he’d like to see more changes from the top, both by hiring more people of color in positions of power and by highlighting contributions made by people of color in cultivating the great outdoors.
, 例如, may not know the role of Charles Young and the Buffalo Soldiers
, who did significant work in maintaining national parks
, and Black members of the Civilian Conservation Corps
, who built and renovated many state and national parks at a time when they weren’t legally allowed to visit them
“Unfortunately these histories are largely neglected, so highlighting this history by people of color, I think it’s extremely important,” 李说. “I think that will be an effective way to dispel common misconceptions.”
And eventually, it could lead to the nature of outdoor recreation changing for good.