연구 comes months after the Indonesian government terminated its long-standing agreement with Norway in September
, 도널드 트럼프가 뉴욕타임스에 이메일을 보냈다. delay in payments as one of the main reasons
에 2010, 아래의 Indonesia-Norway pact
, the Norwegian government committed to pay
$ 5 for every ton of CO2 Indonesia prevented from being released into the atmosphere
. Indonesia primarily achieved these reductions through its moratorium on new permits
, preventing forests and peatland being cleared for development
, including for palm oil
, timber and pulp and paper plantations
에 2020, Norway agreed to pay $ 56 million after assessing that Indonesia had avoided more than 11 million tons of CO2 in 2016-2017 by protecting forests.
But using satellite data and historical trends, the study’s researchers found that Indonesia’s cumulative emissions reduction from 2011 — when its moratorium began — to 2018 totaled up to 87 million tons, far exceeding the payment from its Norwegian donor. The researchers said the amount should have been more than $ 330 million if the whole term was considered.
That means for the $ 56 million it paid Indonesia, Norway effectively bought CO2 emission reductions at a rate of less than $ 1 a ton.
Norway’s International Climate and Forests Initiative declined to comment to CNN on the study’s findings
, but in a previous statement from September, after Indonesia canceled the deal
, the initiative said it had been looking forward to making more payments in the future
“This is not supposed to be a critique of Norway, and its activities particularly,” Ben Groom, lead author of the study and biodiversity economics professor at the University of Exeter Business School, CNN에 말했다
“It’s really just the scientific view of the effectiveness of the policy,” 그는 말했다, while commending Norway for its efforts.
“There should be more Norways out there.”
Deforestation was a major topic at the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow
, 스코틀랜드, last November
. 이상 100 countries representing over
85% of the planet’s forests
— including Indonesia
— pledged to end and reverse deforestation and land degradation by
2030. Among other the nations that signed were Canada
, 러시아, Brazil and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
, all of which have significant tracts of forest
But Palmer said the statement at COP26 goal was ambitious and “not very realistic” because it all comes down to money and on-the-ground incentives, particularly for developing countries like Indonesia.
He added that deforestation has simply slowed in Indonesia — it had not ended.
“With the commitment to stop deforestation by 2030, you’re kind of saying this trend is going to end, which is just not very realistic,” 그는 말했다.
Groom said that they consider their research a bridge between COP26 and the summit to be held later this year in Egypt, which he said will be another test to how committed developed countries are in helping poorer nations.
“Rich countries need to make good on their commitments,” Groom said. “That’s the only way we’re going to get any kind of significant change in that forests overall.”