Prehistoric hunters weren't all male. 妇女杀了大游戏, 新发现表明

男子被猎杀. 妇女聚集. 长期以来,这一直是我们史前祖先的普遍看法。.

但是发现一个埋葬的女人 9,000 多年前在安第斯山脉(Andes Mountains)拥有武器和狩猎工具, and an analysis of other burial sites in the Americas challenges this widely accepted division of labor in hunter-gatherer society.
女人, thought to be between 17 和 19 years old when she died, was buried with items that suggested she hunted big-game animals by spear throwingstone projectile points for felling large animals, a knife and flakes of rock for removing internal organs, and tools for scraping and tanning hides.
Labor practices among recent hunter-gatherer societies are highly gendered, which might lead some to believe that sexist inequalities in things like pay or rank are somehow ‘natural,'” said lead study author Randy Haas, an assistant professor of anthropology at University of California, 戴维斯, in a news release.
    But it’s now clear that sexual division of labor was fundamentally differentlikely more equitablein our speciesdeep hunter-gatherer past.
    The burial site was discovered in 2018 during excavations at a high-altitude site called Wilamaya Patjxa in what is now Peru. The skeleton’s sex was confirmed by analysis of the bones and protein found on the skeleton’s teeth.
    The objects accompanying people in death tend to be those that accompanied them in life, according to archaeologists. Although some scholars have suggested a role for women in ancient hunting, others have dismissed this notion even when hunting tools were uncovered in female burials.
    然而, Hass said this burial site was a particularly robust case.
    It took a strong case to help us recognize that the archaeological pattern indicated actual female hunting behavior.
    Among historic and contemporary hunter-gatherers, it is almost always the case that males are the hunters and females are the gatherers. Because of thisand likely because of sexist assumptions about division of labor in western societyarchaeological findings of females with hunting tools just didn’t fit prevailing worldviews.
    To examine whether this woman found at this site was an outlier, the researchers examined 429 skeletons at 107 burials sites in North and South America from the late Pleistocene and early Holocene periods — 周围 8,000 至 14,000 几年前.
    Of those, 27 individuals were buried with hunting tools — 11 were female and 15 were male. The sample was sufficient towarrant the conclusion that female participation in early big-game hunting was likely nontrivial,” the study, 哪一个 published in the journal Scientific Reports on Wednesday, 说过.
    An illustration of a female hunter who may have killed big-game animals in the Andes 9,000 几年前.

    A community activity

    The findings add to doubts aboutman-the-hunterhypothesis that informed much thinking about early humans since the mid-20th century. That theory posits that it was men who went out and hunted, bringing home meat to feed women and children, who were responsible for gathering berries, plants and nuts to supplement the diet.
    But recent research suggests hunting was very much a community-based activity, needing the participation of all able-bodied individuals to drive large animals, the paper said. The weapon of choice at that timea spear known as an atlatlhad low accuracy, encouraging broad participation, and using it was a skill learned from childhood.
    Women may also have been freed from child care demands byalloparenting” — rearing children was a job shared by many.
      While later burial sites suggest a clearer division of labor among early humans, with hunting more of male activity, the study said that more analysis of burial sites in other places would be valuable to understand how division of labor evolved among hunter-gatherer societies.
      Our findings have made me rethink the most basic organizational structure of ancient hunter-gatherer groups, and human groups more generally,” Haas said.


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