Supreme Court Nominations Fast Facts

Here’s a look at 最高法院 提名.

Under Article II of the 宪法, the President nominates justices to the 最高法院, with theadvice and consent of the Senate.
If a vacancy occurs when Congress is not in session, a recess appointment allows an appointee to serve without Senate approval until Congress reconvenes.
One hundred and sixty-three nominations have been submitted to the Senate (including nominations for chief justice). Of those, 曾经有 126 confirmations, with seven instances of individuals declining to serve.

    其他事实

    The American Bar Association’s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary evaluates nominees to the Supreme Court for the Justice Department and the Senate Judiciary Committee. The organization has three possible rankings: qualified, well-qualified, and not qualified.
    There is no requirement that the chief justice of the Supreme Court previously serve as an associate justice, but five of the 17 chief justices have. Three justices served on the Court immediately before being elevated to chief justice: Edward D. 白色, Harlan Fiske Stone and William Rehnquist. Two justices had a break between their service as associate justice and being appointed chief justice: Charles Evans Hughes and John Rutledge.
    Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed nine justices during his 12-year presidency, the most since George Washington. Jimmy Carter is the only president to complete a full term of office and never have the opportunity to nominate a Supreme Court justice.

    时间线

    1952 – Presidents begin consulting the American Bar Association before making Supreme Court nominations.
    1950s – President Dwight D. Eisenhower makes recess appointments of Earl Warren, Potter Stewart and William J. Brennan. All three are later confirmed by the Senate.
    1955 – Nominees begin appearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee for confirmation hearings.
    1981 – Senate Judiciary Committee hearings are televised for the first time.
    1987 – President Ronald Reagan nominates Robert Bork for a seat but he is rejected by the Senate. Anthony Kennedy takes the seat.
    七月 1, 1991 – President George H.W. 衬套 nominates 克拉伦斯·托马斯 to succeed Justice Thurgood Marshall, who is retiring.
    十月 11, 1991 – Anita Hill testifies on Capitol Hill, accusing Thomas of sexual harassment in the workplace. Thomas denies the allegations.
    十月 15, 1991 – Thomas wins Senate confirmation by the narrowest margin in the 20th century, 52-48.
    1990s – President Bill Clinton is the first Democratic president since 1967 to fill a Supreme Court vacancy. He appoints two: Justice Stephen Breyer露丝·巴德·金斯堡大法官
    九月 5, 2005 – 总统乔治·W. 衬套 nominates John Roberts to succeed the late William Rehnquist as chief justice.
    九月 29, 2005 – Roberts is confirmed by the Senate (78-22).
    十月 3, 2005 – Roberts is sworn in. The same day, Bush nominates Harriet Miers to succeed Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, who is retiring.
    十月 27, 2005 – Miers withdraws her nomination.
    十月 31, 2005 – Bush nominates Samuel Alito.
    一月 31, 2006 – Alito is confirmed by the Senate (58-42). He is sworn in by Roberts.
    可能 26, 2009 – 奥巴马总统 nominates Sonia Sotomayor to succeed Justice David Souter, who is retiring.
    八月 8, 2009 – Sotomayor is sworn in as the first Hispanic justice on the Supreme Court.
    可能 10, 2010 – Obama nominates 埃琳娜·卡根(Elena Kagan) to succeed Justice John Paul Stevens, who is retiring.
    八月 5, 2010 – Kaganconfirmed by the Senate (63-37).
    八月 7, 2010 – Kagan is sworn in.
    游行 16, 2016 – Obama nominates Merrick Garland 更换 已故 Justice Antonin Scalia. No hearings are held.
    二月 1, 2017 – 唐纳德·特朗普总统 nominates Neil Gorsuch to replace Scalia.
    四月 10, 2017 – Gorsuch is sworn in.
      七月 10, 2018 – Trump nominates Brett Kavanaugh to fill the seat of Justice Anthony Kennedy, who is retiring.
      十月 6, 2018 – Kavanaugh wins Senate confirmation by the narrowest margin in 137 年份, 在一个 50-48 投票. 在 1881, Stanley Matthews was confirmed by the Senate in a 24-23 投票. The ceremonial swearing-in event takes place at the White House on October 8.

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