나중에 온라인 사용자가 될 가능성이 더 높은 미국 유치원 어린이, 연구 말한다

(대화)미국의 특정 유치원 그룹은 소셜 네트워킹을 자주 사용하는 경향이 있습니다., 5 학년 말까지 온라인 게임 또는 메시징, according to our new study in the journal Child Development.

The big idea

My colleagues and I identified these groups based on analyses of data from 10,460 US schoolchildren followed over six years. Understanding which children are frequent users of online technologies is important because such use may displace developmentally appropriate activities including physical activity, sleep and independent book reading.
We found that kindergarten children who were aggressive or often acted out were more likely to use these online technologies multiple times a day at the end of elementary school, as were children from low-income families. Black children were also more likely to later be frequent users of online technologies.
    Boys were more likely to be frequent users of online gaming, 동안 girls were more likely to be heavy users of social networking and messaging.
    Children of parents who emphasized early literacy activities and who set limits on watching TV were less likely later to be frequent users of online technologies.

    Why it matters

    Children’s increasingly frequent use of online technologiessuch as Instagram, 트위터, Facebook and other social networking apps; gaming through Xbox, PlayStation or smartphones; and messaging via WhatsApp, Snapchat or texts — 있다 부모님, educators, 과 health providers worried, for good reason.
    Frequent use of online technologies may be displacing developmentally beneficial activitiesthink physical activity, sleep, parent-child interactions and independent book reading. Children who use online technologies many times a day are more likely to be sedentary, sleep-deprivedoverweight; ...에 struggle academically 또는 behaviorally in school; 과 to self-report poorer quality of lifemental health. Children’s use of online technologies has also greatly increased during the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Our study provides new information about which US kindergartners are more likely to later be frequent users of online technologies. This new information can help inform public health campaigns for families most at risk. Routines that promote optimal levels of online technology use, physical activity, sleep, book reading and other activities should help children develop physically, cognitively, academically and behaviorally.

    What still isn’t known

    Our study has limitations. Our results may be conservative because children self-reported how frequently they used online technologies. Data collection ended before the Covid-19 pandemic began.
    Our results are not causal. We don’t know for sure why specific groups of children are more likely to later be frequent users of online technologies. We do have some hypotheses, 그러나. Parents in low-income families may allow more screen time as they deal with greater demands on their own time and resources. Parents of kids who act out may turn to electronic devices to pacify their children’s outbursts. Early experiences with racial discrimination may lead Black children to use online technologies frequently to connect with similar peers and express their racial or ethnic identities.
    And it’s important to recognize that there’s only limited evidencechildren’s useonline technologies causes harm. Any such harms may be limited to frequent usersspecific technologies from specific populations. Further study분석 아르 needed ...에 조사하다 these relations. In future, online technologies might be designed to promote healthy behaviors including by vulnerable populations.

    What’s next

    Identifying at this early stage which young children are more likely to later be frequent users of online technologies might help families prevent problematic use.
    예를 들면, other research suggests that girls may be especially likely to be harmed 으로 frequent social networking due to increased cyberbullying exposure and feelings of body weight dissatisfaction as well as decreased sleep and exercise. Our study finds that girls are already more likely to be using these technologies a lot by the end of elementary school. Limiting social networking and messaging during this early developmental period may be particularly important.
    Setting screen time routines that help children meet recommended guidelines for physical play, sleep, book reading and other beneficial developmental activities may help prevent overuse of online technologies. Limiting children’s access during homework, shared mealtimes and within one hour of bedtime may also help. Families can set rules limiting access to electronic devices. Parents could encourage early literacy activities that help children become independent readers.
      Educators and health providers can inform parents about the repeatedly observed negative associations between frequent use of online technologies and children’s development, as well as support and assist families in setting up screen time routines.
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