谁将成为下一个安东尼·斯卡利亚(Antonin Scalia)? 保守党为他的遗产而战

Five years after the death of conservative hero Antonin Scalia, 最高法院大法官们继续争辩谁是真正的保存人 — 要么, 或者, 保留 — 他的遗产.

Their moves will help define how the court’s six conservatives differentiate themselves from one another in cases and set the course of the nation’s law.
Chief Justice John Roberts, writing for a majority that revived a New Mexico woman’s claim of excessive force against police, and Justice Neil Gorsuch, 异议, both claimed the Scalia mantle as they interpreted a relevant 1991 opinion of his regarding police seizures.
    At the end of the day,” Roberts wrote Thursday, “we simply agree with the analysisset forth thirty years ago by Justice Scalia, joined by six of his colleagues, rather than the competing view urged by the dissent today.
      Roxanne Torres had been shot by police as she fled in her car, and the question was whether she had been “没收” under the Fourth Amendment, which protects againstunreasonable searches and seizures.
        As Justice Scalia explained for himself and six other Members of the Court,” Roberts wrote, “the common law treated ‘the mere grasping or application of physical force with lawful authority,’ as an arrest, ‘whether or not it succeeded in subduing the arrestee.’ ”
        Gorsuch, writing for himself and two other dissenters, suggested Robertsreliance on Scalia was disingenuous. “After highlighting multiple times that Justice Scalia authored” 的 1991 意见, “the majority turns about and faultsScalia’s writing in a separate case, Gorsuch said.
          The Scalia-centered clash between Roberts and Gorsuch recalled a 2020 conflict between Gorsuch and Justice Samuel Alito. 那里, Gorsuch cited Scalia’s brand of textualism as he wrote a decision extending federal anti-discrimination coveragebecause of sexto LGBTQ workers.
          阿里托, 异议, said Gorsuch was trying to pass off his interpretationas the inevitable product of the textualist school of statutory interpretation championed by our late colleague Justice Scalia, but no one should be fooled.
          Alito compared the decision to a pirate ship, writing thatit sails under a textualist flag, but what it actually represents is a theory of statutory interpretation that Justice Scalia excoriated, the theory that courts should ‘up-dateold statutes so that they better reflect the current values of society.
          These recent debates represent more than wrestling over who can best channel Scalia, who during his 1986-2016 tenure was the leading light of the textualist approach to interpreting statues, focused on the plain words of a law, and of the originalist method of constitutional interpretation, tied to the 18th-century framersunderstanding of the document.
          They are operating in new territory, 与 6-3 dominance over liberals since last year’s death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and the addition of Amy Coney BarretŤ, who once served Scalia as a law clerk. They are staking out positions along their own ideological spectrum.
          Some on the right, notably Justice Clarence Thomas, have pushed hard to roll back liberal-era precedents, while Roberts has adopted a slower approach.
          Alliances have been shifting and definitive versions of textualism and originalism remain elusive. Last year when Gorsuch was joined by Roberts and the liberal justices to expand anti-discrimination protections to LGBTQ employees, 阿里托, Thomas and Justice Brett Kavanaugh insisted Scalia’s textualist method should have produced the opposite result.
          In Thursday’s dispute, Kavanaugh apparently cast the decisive vote with Robertsinterpretation of precedent so Torres could press her claim of excessive force. They were joined by the court’s three remaining liberals: Justice Stephen Breyer, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan.
          巴雷特, confirmed to the high court in late October, was not yet seated when Torres v. Madrid was argued and did not vote in the case.

          Turning to Scalia-like insults

          In dissent, Gorsuch, joined by Thomas and Alito, wrote that the Roberts majority had disregarded the Constitution’s original and ordinary meaning: “Until today, a Fourth Amendment ‘seizurehas required taking possession of someone or something.
          Gorsuch mocked Robertsreference to a 1605 English common law dispute known as the Countess of Rutland’s Case. “Not even minor royalty can rescue the majority,” Gorsuch said and added, “We have no business wandering about and randomly grabbing volumes off the shelf, plucking out passages we like, scratching out bits we don’t, all before pasting our own new pastiche into the U.S. 报告书,” bound volumes of Supreme Court decisions.
          It seems apt that when the Scalia legacy is in dispute, justices can descend into sniping. He was a master of the memorable insult.
          I would hide my head in a bag,” Scalia wrote, if he had to join an opinion that began as one by Justice Anthony Kennedy did in the 2015 controversy over same-sex marriage. 在另一个 2015 案件, Scalia, again dissenting, referred to the court’sinterpretive jiggery-pokery.
          In yet another dissent, 在 1989, he called a disputed sentencing commissiona sort of junior-varsity Congress.
          And that series makes another point: Scalia spent much of his three decades writing fiery dissents. His interpretive methods were on the fringe. But through the force of his persuasion, and more importantly the addition of conservative jurists, his methods moved to the mainstream.
            The outcomes his methods produce vary, to be sure.
            But even liberal Justice Kagan declared in a 2015 Harvard lecture honoring Scalia: “We’re all textualists now.

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